Venezuelan Crisis and Regional Integration

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-5-79-87

V. Kheifets, (,
St. Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya Nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation;
L. Khadorich (,
p>St. Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya Nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation 

Acknowledgements. The article has been supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Humanities (RFH). Project No. 15-31-01016.

Abstract. Modern Venezuela has nothing to do with stability and development. Caracas, run into debt, is suffering diplomatic defeats one after another. Political and economic crisis captured the country, and the government seems to be incapable of retrieving the situation. The opposition between the government and the National Assembly creates the threat of unconstitutional or even military actions. Yet the international community, including the major multilateral blocks like UNASUR involved in peaceful settlement, lacks adequate means as well as political will either to help the country in crisis resolution, or to prevent the internal institutional conflict from influencing regional processes. However, the question is whether the Venezuelan crisis affects the regional integration, or it has become just an indicator of the deadlock of innumerable Latin American integration models happened to be politically and ideologically determined to a certain extent, and thereby inefficient in the context of geopolitical shift within the continent, after new leaders appeared in Argentina and Brazil? Anyway, Caracas almost for sure has got its regional leadership bogged down in an attempt to relieve itself from any responsibility for the crisis. In that context, an unexpected activity of the new Secretary General of the OAS, Luis Almagro, attracts attention. Backed by the Venezuelan government during the elections to the office, L. Almagro now has chosen firm and consistent position against N. Maduro, introducing new approaches designed to reestablish the role of the OAS in the Americas. 

Keywords: Venezuela, OAS, MERCOSUR, UNASUR, Latin American integration 


1. Nelson J. Former Venezuelan Allies Turn Their Backs Following NAM Summit. Available at: (accessed 22.10.2016).

2. Sánchez Urribarrí R. A. Venezuela (2015): Un Régimen híbrido en crisis. Revista de ciencia política, 2016, vol. 36, núm. 1, pp. 365-385.

3. Consejo Ciudadano para la Seguridad Pública y Justicia Penal A. C., 2016. Available at: (accessed 22.10.2016).

4. Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia, 2016. Available at: (accessed 22.10.2016).

5. Informe Anual de Gestión a la Asamblea Nacional 2015. Available at:‑4da1-859f‑1ae55772d7b5&groupId=10136 (accessed 22.10.2016).

6. Ivanovskii Z. Venesuela: konflikt vetvei vlasti na fone ekonomicheskogo krizisa [Venezuela: Conflict of Powers Against the Background of the Economic Crisis]. Russian International Affairs Council, June 15, 2016. Available at: (accessed 16.10.2016).

7. Decreto No. 2.367. Gaceta oficial de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, 11 de julio de 2016, Núm. 40.941. Available at:‑14134.pdf (accessed 13.10.2016).

8. Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

9. Peters B. Wie Maduro den Krieg in Venezuela herbeiredet. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

10. Sabatini C. The Final Blow to Venezuela’s Democracy. What Latin America can do about it? Available at: (accessed 07.11.2016).

11. Joint Press Release R110/16. Venezuela / Crisis: UN and Inter-American Experts Raise Alarm at Deterioration of Media Freedom. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

12. European Parliament Resolution of 8 June 2016 on the Situation in Venezuela (2016/2699 (RSP)). Available at:‑2016-0269+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN (accessed 10.10.2016).

13. In the Senate of the United States. Resolution N 537. July 14, 2016. Available at: (accessed 21.10.2016).

14. House of Representatives, U. S. Resolution N 851. September 27, 2016. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

15. Letter from I. Ros-Lehtinen to J. Kerry, Secretary of State. Available at: (accessed 22.10.2016).

16. IMF. World Economic Outlook: Too Slow for Too Long. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

17. Vaya K. China Rethinks its Alliance with Reeling Venezuela. Available at:­ance-with-reeling-venezuela‑1473628506 (accessed 22.10.2016).

18. Hornby L., Schipani A. China Seeks to Renegotiate Venezuela Loans. Available at:‑33da‑11e6-bda0-04585c31b153 (accessed 22.10.2016).

19. Russia Has Extended Venezuela’s Debt Repayment (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 23.10.2016).

20. Full Text of Remarks by Raul Castro Ruz, President of Cuba’s Councils of State and Ministers, Opening the 7th Association of Ca­ribbean States Summit. June 4, 2016. Available at: (accessed 21.10.2016).

21. Declaration of the ALBA-TCP to Support the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and its Legitimate President, Nicolás Maduro Moros. Geneva. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

22. Gil V. Maduro atacó a Almagro y se ganó la crítica de Mujica. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

23. Almagro L. La foto en Twitter, 11 de abril de 2015. Available at: (accessed 21.10.2016).

24. Carta de Secretario General de la OEA, L. Almagro, a Presidente del Consejo Nacional Electoral. Available at: (accessed 19.10.2016).

25. Nicolás Maduro acusó a Luis Almagro de ser un agente de la CIA. Available at:­les/335482/nicolas-maduro-acuso-a-luis-almagro-de-ser-un-agente-de-la-cia (accessed 20.10.2016).

26. Mensaje del Secretario General de la OEA al Presidente de Venezuela. Available at:­municado_prensa.asp?sCodigo=C‑062/16 (accessed 19.10.2016).

27. Luis Almagro: “La convocatoria del revocatorio y la liberación de Leopoldo López son innegociables”. Available at: (accessed 20.10.2016).

28. Declaración del Consejo Permanente sobre la situación en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, aprobada por el Consejo Permanente en la sesión extraordinaria, celebrada el 1 junio de 2016. OEA/Ser.G. CP/DEC. 63 (2076/16).

29. La carta de la Asamblea Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela al Secretario General de la OEA. 16.05.2016.

30. Presentation of the Secretary General of the OAS to the Permanent Council on the Application of the Democratic Charter. Available at:‑011/16 (accessed 20.10.2016).

31. Joint Statement of OAS Member States on the Recent Developments in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Available at: (accessed 22.10.2016).

32. La Carta Democrática, la OEA y Venezuela. Available at: (accessed 22.10.2016).

33. Mercosur y después. Available at:‑316607 (accessed 22.10.2016).

34. Protocolo Adicional al Tratado de Asunción sobre la Estructura Institucional del Mercosur – Protocolo de Ouro Preto. Available at: (accessed 23.10.2016).

35. Silencio de Uruguay sobre el acuerdo en el Mercosur contra Venezuela. Available at: (accessed 23.10.2016).

36. Kheifets V. L., Kheifets L. S. Latinskaya Amerika: pravyi shtorm dlya “levogo povorota” [Latin America: Right Storm for the Left Turn]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo Universiteta Druzhby Narodov. Seriya: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2015, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 44-55. 

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Kheifets V., Khadorich L. Venezuelan Crisis and Regional Integration. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2017, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 79-87.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.