Large Cracks in the Grand Chessboard

9289
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-1-29-42

K. Gadzhiev (k.gajiev@rambler.ru),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, 
Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23 Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation; 
Lomonosov Moscow State University, 27/4, Lomonosovskii Prosp., 119991, Moscow, Russian Federation 


Abstract

In the article, it is attempted to identify and analyze the profound changes that have taken place in the geopolitical picture of the vast Eurasian space over the past three decades. The concept of Zb. Brzezinski, the well-known American analyst who portrayed Eurasia as a “Grand Chessboard” where the winner represented by the United States is known in advance, enounced in his similar-name book (which has been gaining increasing popularity in 1990s and 2000s) is used as an original premise. It is shown that within the first fifteen years of the 21st century, due to a combination of factors, the geopolitical situation in Eurasia changed dramatically. The revival of Russia as a strong military and political power capable to defend its national interests, the emergence of powerful new actors such as China, the weakening of geopolitical positions of the West in general and the U.S. in particular, their defeat in aggressive wars and other failures have led to deep cracks in the conventional Grand Chessboard, which have brought about changes in both the lineup of the leading players and the rules of the game on it. These cracks create a serious obstacle for Washington in terms of maintaining its positions in this vast region, which is of key importance for the prospects of the modern world community. But at the same time, it is necessary to take into account that the United States as a great military and political power simply will not give up the protection of their interests in Eurasia as a whole, and particularly in Central Asia. The most rational and acceptable way for all sides to solve the key problems of the region is seen in the transformation of Eurasia with common efforts into a sort of testing ground for peace, cooperation and harmonization of basic interests in mutually beneficial and healthy competition, or, in other words, a fair game of chess. The aim of this game could not be a zero sum result, but the search for conditions, forms and means of a positive, responsible cooperation of all stakeholders. However, as history shows, the content, nature, scope, prevalence and levels of positive or negative settings of inter-state relations depend on how the states see and perceive each other, to what extent they trust each other. We must not forget that not arms, or an arms race, cause wars, but on the contrary, the competing parties’ attitude towards war leads to an arms race.


Keywords

Grand Chessboard, Eurasia, power, geopolitics, force, counterforce, veto, national interest, national security 


REFERENCES

1. Бжезинский Зб. Великая шахматная доска (Господство Америки и его геостратегические императивы). Москва, Международные отношения, 1998. 280 с. [Brzezinski Zb. Velikaya shakhmatnaya doska (Gospodstvo Ameriki i ego geostrategicheskie imperativy [The Grand Chessboard (American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives)]. Moscow, Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1998. 280 p.]

2. Бжезинский Зб. Стратегический взгляд: Америка и глобальный кризис. [Brzezinski Zb. Strategicheskii vzglyad: Amerika i global’nyi krizis [Strategic View: America and the Global Crisis.]] Available at: http://www.e-reading.by/bookreader.php/1022010/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

3. Россия перед налетом апачей. [Russia before the Touch of the Apaches. (In Russ.)] Available at: http://www.fondsk.ru/news/2009/06/13/9545-9545.html (accessed 15.12.2015).

4. Cohen S.F. The Media New Cold War. The Nation, 2005, January 31. Available at: http://www.thenation.com/article/medias-new-cold-war/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

5. Porter G. Georgia War Rooted in US “Self-Deceit”. Asia Times, 26.08.2008. Available at: http://inosmi.ru/world/20080829/243657.html (accessed 15.12.2015).

6. Petro N.N. The Russia-Georgia War: Causes and Consequences. Global Dialogue, vol. 11, Winter/Spring 2009. Available at: http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=439 (accessed 15.12.2015).

7. Europa ist Gefordert. Interview mit: Wolfgang Schäuble. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 14.09.2015. Available at: https://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Interview/2015/09/2015-09-14-schaeuble-faz.html (accessed 15.12.2015).

8. Штайнгарт Г., Дернер А. Генри Киссинджер: Новый уровень сложности. [Shtaingart G., Derner A. Genri Kissindzher: Novyi uroven’ slozhnosti [Henry Kissinger: a New Level of Complexity] Available at: https://maxpark.com/community/politic/content/4942174 (accessed 15.12.2015).

9. Качинс Э. Холодной войны не будет. Независимая газета, 22.05.2006. [Kuchins A. Kholodnoi voiny ne budet [Cold War Will not Be]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 22.05.2006.]

10. Путин В.В. Мюнхенская речь. [Putin V.V. Myunkhenskaya rech’ [The Munich Speech]] Available at: http://kristalinn.livejournal.com/2067.html (accessed 15.12.2015).

 

11. Черноморский П. Мюнхенский говор. Как Запад отреагировал на речь Путина. [Chernomorskii P. Myunkhenskii govor. Kak Zapad otreagiroval na rech’ Putina [The Munich Dialect. How the West Reacted to Putin’s Speech]] Available at: http://www.globalrus.ru/column/783665/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

12. Фидлер С., Севастопуло Д. Путин резко выступил против внешней политики США. Financial Times, 11.02.2007. [Fidler S., Sevastopulo D. Putin rezko vystupil protiv vneshnei politiki USA [Putin Strongly Opposed US Foreign Policy]. Financial Times, 11.02.2007.] Available at: http://inosmi.ru/ft_com/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

13. Речь В.В. Путина на Валдайском форуме в Сочи 2014. [Speech by Vladimir Putin at the Valdai Forum in Sochi 2014 (In Russ.)] Available at: http://ruxpert.ru/%C2%EB%E0%E4%E8%EC%E8%F0_%CF%F3%F2%E8%ED (accessed 15.12.2015).

14. Ваньков В. США на пороге ядерного апокалипсиса. [Van’kov V. USA na poroge yadernogo apokalipsisa [US on the Brink of a Nuclear Apocalypse]] Available at: http://svpressa.ru/war21/article/135245/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

15. В Пентагоне заявили о ядерной и кибернетической угрозе со стороны России. [The Pentagon Declared Nuclear and Cyber Threat from Russia (In Russ.)] Available at: https://lenta.ru/news/2016/01/04/pentagon/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

16. Як Ф. США: “Сдержать российскую агрессию в Европе”. [Yak F. USA: “Sderzhat’ rossiiskuyu agressiyu v Evrope” [US: “To Deter Russian Aggression in Europe”]] Available at: http://sprintnews.ru/a/1148957 (accessed 28.01.2016).

17. Киссинджер Г. Дипломатия. Москва, Ладомир, 1997. 848 с. [Kissinger G. Diplomatiya [Diplomacy]. Moscow, Ladomir, 1997. 848 p.]

18. Совет Европы: единой силы, способной решать за всех, больше нет. [The Council of Europe: a Unified Force Capable to Decide for All, No More (In Russ.)] Available at: http://news.mail.ru/politics/20302899/ (accessed 15.12.2015).

19. Brzezinski: Can Democracies Thrive with Financial Systems That Are out of Control? The Christian Science Monitor, 24.01.2012. Available at: http://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Global-Viewpoint/2012/0124/Brzezinski-Can-democracies-thrive-with-financial-systems-that-are-out-of-control (accessed 15.12.2015).

20. Махбубани К. Шоры на глазах у Америки. [Mahbubani K. Shory na glazakh u Ameriki [Blinders on the Eyes of America]] Available at: http://inosmi.ru/world/20130525/209343090.html?id=209357143 (accessed 15.12.2015).

21. Обама: Отныне правила мировой торговли будут определять США, а не другие страны. [Obama: From Now on the Rules of World Trade Will Determine the US, Not Other Countries (In Russ.)] Available at: http://rusjev.net/2015/10/06/obama-otnyine-pravila-mirovoy-torgovli-budut-opredelyat-ssha-a-ne-drugie-stranyi/ (accessed 15.12.2015). 


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Gadzhiev K. Large Cracks in the Grand Chessboard. World Eсonomy and International Relations, 2017, vol. 61, No 1, pp. 29-42. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-1-29-42



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 4
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Economic Globalization and Regional Integration in the Post-Covid Era 
  • Chinese Economists and Formation of Post-Pandemic Development Strategy 
  • National Security Issues in US Trade Policy 
  • Information Operations of NATO and their Influence on Modern International Politics 
  • Greater Middle East
View This Issue (2022, vol. 66, No. 4)
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.