The European Migrant Crisis: Common Challenge and National Responses

519
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-1-97-107

Yu. Kvashnin (ykvashnin@gmail.com), 
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.
A. Kuznetsov (kuznetsov@imemo.ru), 
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation; 
MGIMO University, 76, Prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation.
O. Trofimova (olgatrofimova53@mail.ru), 
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.
A. Chetverikova (chetverikova.anna@gmail.com
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation 

Abstract. The article reviews changes in migration policy of different European countries as a response to the ongoing refugee crisis. The case study of Greece, Hungary, Germany, Sweden and several other countries located along the so-called Eastern Mediterranean migration route shows that the problems they face, as well as their solutions, vary significantly. These distinctions are caused by a number of factors, such as geographical positions of recipient countries, their demand for new labour force, institutional frameworks and historically developed models of immigrant integration. Transition to the much-needed European migration strategy is impossible without finding a common ground on a number of fundamental issues, including introduction of resettlement quotas, border closings, social benefits to migrants and many other. At the same time, serious contradictions are also observed at the national level. In Sweden, the government changes its refugee admission policy, hastily adopting laws aimed at limiting the influx of migrants. The Greek authorities, which for a long time underestimated the crisis considering that most migrants regarded Greece only as a transit country, after Macedonia’s decision to close its southern borders had to redefine their approaches and appeal to the principle of European solidarity. Considerable contradictions are observed in France which, on the one hand, shows discontent with resettlement quotas, but on the other hand, calls for a more equitable distribution of migrants arriving in Europe. Fluctuations in migration policies at the national level in many respects are caused by the public discontent over the level of immigration and extra expenditure on migration-related issues at the age of austerity. All aforementioned countries demonstrated the growing influence of nationalist and right-wing political forces calling for a more restrictive migration policy. As a result, the national governments in order to retain their public support have to introduce tough measures that undermine supranational level decisions.

Keywords: European Union, migrant crisis, refugees, economic migrants, labour market, Schengen Area, resettlement quotas 


REFERENCES

1. Eurostat News Release 44/2016 of 4 March 2016 on Asylum Applicants in 2015. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/7203832/3-04032016-AP-EN.pdf/790eba01-381c-4163-bcd2-a54959b99ed6 (accessed 06.05.2016).

2. Pressemitteilung Nr. 105 vom 21.03.2016. Statistisches Bundesamt, 2016. Available at: https://www.destatis.de/DE/PresseService/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2016/03/PD16_105_12421.html (accessed 06.05.2016).

3. Pressemitteilung Nr. 277 vom 03.08.2015. Statistisches Bundesamt, 2015. Available at: https://www.destatis.de/DE/PresseService/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2015/08/PD15_277_122 (accessed 06.05.2016).

4. Statistisches Jahrbuch Deutschland und Internationales. 2015. Wiesbaden, Statistisches Bundesamt, 2015. 693 p.

5. Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund – Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus – 2014. Statistisches Bundesamt, 2015. Available at: https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/Bevoelkerung/MigrationIntegration/Migrationshintergrund2010220147004.pdf?__blob=publicationFile (accessed 06.05.2016).

6. Eisnecker Ph., Schupp J. Flüchtlingszuwanderung: Mehrheit der Deutschen befürchtet negative Auswirkungen auf Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. DIW Wochenbericht, 2016, no. 8, pp. 158-164.

7. Zweitstimmen-Wahlabsicht – Zeitraum. 01.04–14.04.2016. Das Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach, 2016. Available at: http://www.ifd-allensbach.de/studien-und-berichte/sonntagsfrage/gesamt.html (accessed 06.05.2016).

8. Country Factsheet: Sweden 2014. European Migration Network (EMN). European Commission, 2014. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/reports/docs/country-factsheets/27.sweden_emn_country_factsheet_2014.pdf (accessed 06.05.2016).

9. Sweden`s Ugly Immigration Problem. The Globe and Mail, 11.09.2015. Available at: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/swedens-ugly-immigration-problem/article26338254/ (accessed 18.04.2016).

10. Migrant Integration Statistics – Employment. Eurostat, 2016. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migrant_integration_statistics_-_employment (accessed 10.04.2016).

11. Asylum and First Time Asylum Applicants by Citizenship, Age and Sex. Annual Aggregated Data (Rounded). Eurostat, 2016. Available at: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do (accessed 10.03.2016).

12. Sweden and Migration. Available at: http://sweden.se/migration/#2015 (accessed at 12.04.2016).

13. Asylum Decisions. Swedish Migration Agency, 2015. Available at: http://www.migrationsverket.se/English/About-the-Migration-Agency/Facts-and-statistics-/Statistics.html (accessed 15.03.2016).

14. Foreign-Born Population by Country of Birth. Eurostat, 2015. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics (accessed 15.11.2015).

15. The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Region: Europe. Pew Research Center, 2011. Available at: http://www.pewforum.org/2011/01/27/future-of-the-global-muslim-population- regional-europe/ (accessed 15.11.2015).

16. Crise des migrants et des refugies: qui fait quoi pour les accueillir? L`Express, 09.09.2015. Available at: http://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/monde/europe/crise-des-migrants-et-des-refugies-qui-fait-quoi-pour-les-accueillir_1712682.html (accessed 15.03.2016).

17. Refugies: la pire crise migratoire connue par la France? BFMTV, 2015. Available at: http://www.bfmtv.com/international/migrants-refugies-la-pire-crise-migratoire-connue-par-la-france-911540.html (accessed 15.03.2016).

18. Premiers chiffres de l`asile en France en 2015. Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides, 2015. Available at: https://www.ofpra.gouv.fr/fr/l-ofpra/actualites/premiers-chiffres-de-l-asile-en (accessed 15.03.2016).

19. La France a l`action face a la crise migratoire. Available at: http://www.gouvernement.fr/la-france-a-l-action-face-a-la-crise-migratoire-2817 (accessed 06.05.2016).

20. Клинова М.В. Об итогах региональных выборов во Франции и экономической программе Национального Фронта. [Klinova M.V. Ob itogakh regional’nykh vyborov vo Frantsii i ekonomicheskoi programme Natsional’nogo Fronta [On the Outcome of Regional Elections in France and the Economic Program of the National Front]] Available at: https://imemo.ru/index.php?page_id=502&id=2061 (accessed 29.04.2016).

21. Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response – Mediterranean. The UN Refugee Agency, 2016. Available at: http://data.unhcr.org/mediterranean/country.php?id=83 (accessed 09.05.2016).

22. Trapped in Greece. An Avoidable Refugee Crisis. Amnesty International Publications. London, 2016. 37 p.

23. EU-Turkey statement, 18 March 2016. Available at: www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/03/18-eu-turkey-statement (accessed 09.05.2016).

24. Greece Says Will Have to Spend Over 1 bln This Year to Deal with Refugee Crisis; NATO on Its Way. Available at: www.ekathimerini.com/205908/article/ekathimerini/news/greece-says-will-have-to-spend-over-1-bln-this-year-to-deal-with-refugee-crisis-nato-on-its-way (accessed 09.05.2016).

25. Ερευνα: «Ναι» στη βοήθεια προς τους πρόσφυγες λένε οι Ελληνες. Available at: www.eea.gr/gr/el/articles/ereyna-nai-sti-voitheia-pros-toys-prosfyges-lene-oi-ellines (accessed 09.05.2016).

26. Δημοσκόπηση: Τι σκέφτονται οι Έλληνες για τους πρόσφυγες. Available at: http://tvxs.gr/news/ellada/dimoskopisi-public-issue-ti-skeftontai-oi-ellines-gia-toys-prosfyges (accessed 09.05.2016).

27. Потемкина О.Ю. Миграционный кризис в ЕС: роль стран Вишеградской группы. Современная Европа, 2015, № 6, сс. 36-45. [Potemkina O.Yu. Migratsionnyi krizis v ES: rol’ stran Vishegradskoi gruppy [Migration Crisis in the EU: the Role of the Visegrad Group]. Contemporary Europe, 2015, no. 6, рр. 36-45.]

28. Mixed Migration Flows in the Mediterranean and Beyond. International Organization for Migration. Available at: https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/situation_reports/file/Mixed-Flows-Mediterranean-and-Beyond-Compilation-Overview-2015.pdf (accessed 06.05.2016).

29. Фролова Ю.С., Григорьев А.В., Лебедева И.В. Социальное эхо миграционного дрейфа в странах Евро­пы. Каспийский регион: политика, экономика, культура, 2015, № 4(45), сс. 205-211. [Frolova Yu.S., Grigor’ev A.V., Lebedeva I.V. Sotsial’noe ekho migratsionnogo dreifa v stranakh Evropy [Social Echo of a Migration Drift in the European Countries]. Kaspiiskii region: politika, ekonomika, kul’tura, 2015, no. 4(45), pp. 205-211.]

30. Refugees Should Be Promptly Returned, Not Accommodated – Zeman. Ceske noviny, 30.08.2015. Available at: http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/zpravy/refugees-should-be-promptly-returned-not-accommodated-zeman/1252852 (accessed 06.05.2016).

31. Johnstone Ch. Czech Lead in Negative Sentiment about Immigration from Outside EU. Available at: http://radio.cz/en/section/news/czechs-lead-in-negative-sentiment-about-immigration-from-outside-eu (accessed 06.05.2016).

32. EU Risks ‘Disintegration’ Over Migrant Crisis, Warns Mogherini. EU Business, 29.10.2015. Available at: http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/europe-migrants.14xv (accessed 09.05.2016).

33. European Refugee Crisis. Available at: http://european-refugee-crisis.silk.co (accessed 09.05.2016).


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Kvashnin Y., Kuznetsov A., Trofimova O., Chetverikova A. The European Migrant Crisis: Common Challenge and National Responses. World Eсonomy and International Relations, 2017, vol. 61, No 1, pp. 97-107. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-1-97-107



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 11
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Developing Countries in the New Equation of the Post-Crisis World Order 
  • U.S. Public Diplomacy as a Tool for “Political Warfare” 
  • Central Europe: Possible Scenarios
  • The Collapse of the Global Consumption Model: in Search of Sustainability
  • Future Wars in Light of the Past Experience
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.