Paradigm of Human Development in Spain

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2014-7-5-17

G. Ponedelko, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAN), 23 Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (

Abstract. Main trends of human development in Spain in 1975–2013 are considered. The present high level of HDI, in particular in education, was achieved by this country for the years of its democratic transformation. Education in Spain has begun to play a considerable role since the beginning of the 1980th as a result of a number of its profound reforms. n unprecedented growth of students enrolled in schooling of different grade levels mostly in the secondary and higher education with subsequent rapid increase of HC accumulation. If earlier the main factor of the country’s economic development was the growth of its population with the dominant labor force of initial education level, by now the most representative group has become the people with secondary and higher education. Another impressive trend is the rapid growth of both female education and employment. It permits considering this gender group as a fundamental basis of the country’s present and future labor force. Despite its achievements Spanish education system is still relatively weak and having a number of serious deficiencies in comparison with the leading OECD countries. Without further education reforms Spain won’t be able to change its economic model, increase its labor force quality and to continue moving ahead on the way to social progress.

Keywords: Human development index (HDI), human capital (), primary and secondary education, higher education, occupational and vocational training, inter-company training, dual education system, labor productivity, level of employment and unemployment

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For citation:
Ponedelko G. Paradigm of Human Development in Spain. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2014, no. 7, pp. 5-17.

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