K. Shestibratov, Branch of Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 6, Prospekt Nauki, Pushchino, 142290, Russian Federation (firstname.lastname@example.org)
I. Chubugina, All-Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry, 15, Institutskaya Str., Pushkino, 141200, Russian Federation (email@example.com)
S. Zavriev, Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16/10, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Acknowledgment. The works were executed under fi nancial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of projects no. 14.512.11.120 as of October 10, 2013, no. 14.M04.12.0009 as of June 27, 2014 and no. 14.616.21.0013 as of September 17, 2014.
Abstract. The development and ratification of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity (hereinafter the Protocol) by 167 countries was a significant event in the sphere of international legal regulation of genetic engineering activity (GEA). The Protocol came into effect on September 11, 2003. The Protocol is the main starting point of the legislative base building in the GEA field for a number of countries, including all EU countries, China and Brazil. The US and Russia have not ratified the Cartagena Protocol. The main principle underlying the European concepts of GEA regulation and risk assessment is the «precautionary principle». On the contrary, the American concept of GEA regulation and risk assessment is based on another concept: the biotechnology methodology itself doesn't create new risks to human health and environment. In this regard, the state regulates the process of GMOs creating and estimates the produced products. In Russian Federation, the legislative basis in the sphere of GEA regulation is poorly developed. Obviously, first and foremost Russia will have to decide on which basis the normative legal regulation for the use of GMOs should be built: on the Cartagena Protocol or on its own system, for example, in the framework of the Customs Union.
Keywords: EU, China, Brazil, USA, Russia, genetic engineering activity, GEA, genetically modified organisms, legal regulation
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