Internal Mobility of Researchers in Japan and China


I. Kirichenko, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAN), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (
I. Onischenko, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAN), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (


This article is devoted to problems of internal mobility of researchers in China and Japan. Internal mobility is an important mechanism that supports transfer of knowledge from universities to industry. That is why it is important to study trends, factors of the development and forms of internal mobility in order to see if the experience of these countries could help to build efficient NIS in Russia. The two Asian countries have similar problems: the mobility of researchers is limited by specific features of their labor markets. Both try to overcome these barriers in order to construct efficient schemes of collaboration between universities and industry. In this article this process is considered in the context of the Triple Helix concept. The aim is to understand the role of all of the Helix’ elements – government, universities and industry – in the promotion of the internal mobility. Without adequate institutional basis universities and industry cannot arrange the mobility of researchers because their individual interests do not coincide with the interests of organizations to cooperate. Government should build this basis. For instance, it is essential to reform Japan’s pension system which currently stimulates academician researchers to stay in university during their whole working life. With the main prerequisites provided by the government the organizations can create their own schemes to motivate researchers becoming mobile. Such schemes include different organizational forms of cooperation. In particular, joint enterprises, motivating instruments such as wages and bonuses, administrative regulations. For instance some of universities in China permit professors to use 20% of working hours to consult industry. The authors analyze the measures that the governments of two countries undertake to build institutional basis of internal mobility of researchers and the reaction of universities and industry to such initiatives. The article also tries to show strengths and weaknesses of instruments that use organizations to motivate the mobility of researchers working for them.


Internal (intersectoral) mobility, researchers, national innovation system, knowledge transfer, university-industrial collaboration

Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Kirichenko I., Onischenko I. Internal Mobility of Researchers in Japan and China . Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2014, No 12, pp. 40-49

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