Liquid Democracy: Pro et Contra

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2014-12-60-69

T. Rovinskaya, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAN), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (

Abstract. The paper suggests the general analysis of the so called liquid democracy – the newest political concept which combines the elements of direct (deliberative) and representative democracy forms, by means of the modern information-network technology (based on internet). Brief historical review of the world democratic developments emphasizes the continuity of democratic forms from ancient to present times in all parts of Europe, including Russia. The modern liquid democracy theory is analyzed concerning both its strengths and weaknesses. As far as it unites direct and representative democracy concepts, it contains the advantages of both, but at the same time, multiple theoretical and practical problems need to be solved, many technical solutions are to be found to make the concept work. The main question raised in the article is: should this new concept be regarded as a real practical solution to improve the present-day state of world democracy, or is it just another utopian idea?  

Keywords: Liquid democracy, e-democracy, participatory democracy, network society, direct parliamentarism, delegated voting, proxy voting, expertocracy

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For citation:
Rovinskaya T. Liquid Democracy: Pro et Contra. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2014, No 12, pp. 60-69.

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