Invisible Labor in Economies of Asia and Africa

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2013-11-53-61

E. Bragina, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAN), 23 Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (

Abstract. The paper shows the duality and inconsistency of informal employment in the countries of Asia and Africa. At the one hand, it helps millions of humans to survive, at the other hand, it negatively affects the nations’ economic growth.

Keywords: massive unemployment, informal sector, invisible labor, types of informal unemployment, informal enterprises, labor market, business for survival, relationships between formal and informal sectors

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For citation:
Bragina E. Invisible Labor in Economies of Asia and Africa. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2013, no. 11, pp. 53-61.

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