E. Bragina, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAN), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation (email@example.com).
At last, it is now recognized that mass poverty is not only a humanitarian a problem but also a social and economic one. The principal way of lowering mass poverty is to secure the employment. To combat poverty it is necessary to carry out complex reforms, which in the backward economies can only be accomplished “from the above”, namely by the governments. The state, however, has both to ensure stabilization and to push ahead the modernization projects. This makes it difficult to guarantee a balanced development. Thus, lack of stability remains a permanent feature of non-Western nations.
mass poverty, international assistance programs, demographic shrinkage, demographic dividend, poverty line, deprivation principle, Amartya Sen, multidimensional poverty index
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