Gudev Pavel
The Northern Sea Route: Problems of National Status Legitimization under International Law. Part II
Publication Type:


ISSN 2221-2698

DOI 10.37482/issn2221-2698.2020.41.130

The second part of the paper shows that the regime of navigation in the Arctic, particularly on the NSR, defended by Russia today, is much more liberal than that which existed in the Soviet years: up to the Gorbachev’s 1987 Murmansk speech the Soviet Arctic was a closed sea region for foreign navigation. Permissive order of passage established today at the level of Russian national legislation applies only to civil ships, and in the framework of the 1982 Convention, measures to protect the marine environment from pollution from ships cannot be applied to warships, military auxiliary ships, and ships on the state noncommercial service. However, the presence on the Northern Sea routes of water areas with the status of internal historical waters, including several Arctic straits, plus the special legal status of the Arctic, which is not limited exclusively to the 1982 Convention, allows Russia to insist on the applicability of the permit regime also to foreign warships. This approach is based mainly on the two states’ practice with the longest coastline in the Arctic: the USSR and Canada. Navigation along the NSR in today’s ice conditions is not yet possible without passing through the waters of the Russian Arctic Straits, whose waters are classified by the USSR as internal on historical legal grounds. Although under the 1982 Convention, they can be conditionally regarded as international, the lack of permanent transit through them makes it possible not to recognize them as such. However, the Russian Federation’s task to turn the NSR into an international shipping route may lead to a weakening of the current legal position. A similar situation may arise concerning the enforcement of Article 234 “Ice Covered Areas” of the 1982 Convention, which gives the Arctic countries additional rights in the field of navigation control. Lack of ice cover in the Arctic during most of the year can significantly strengthen the position of Russia’s opponents, who insist on a too broad interpretation of this article on our part. Finally, climatic changes may lead to the NSR becoming more latitudinal, and then the Russian Federation will lose any legal grounds to regulate navigation.


Keywords: Northern Sea Route | Arctic | USA | UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 | international straits | right of innocent passage | right of transit passage | inland waters | historical legal grounds | freedom of navigation | national legislation |

Russian Science Citation Index



OTHER PUBLICATIONS ON THIS TOPIC

Gudev Pavel
The Northern Sea Route: problems of national status legitimization under international law.Part I

Gudev Pavel
The US Policy in World Ocean

Gudev Pavel
The US Policy in World Ocean

Gudev Pavel
Политико-правовые аспекты морской политики США в АТР [Текст] / П. А. Гудев // Юго-Восточная Азия: актуальные проблемы развития. – 2019. – № 1 (42). – С. 53-75.

Gudev Pavel, Mishin Igor
American-Chinese Controversies around the Taiwan Strait (Part I. Essence of the Terminological Dispute). Yugo-Vostochnaya Aziya: aktual'nyye problemy razvitiya, 2022, T. 3, No 3 (56). Pp. 60–76. DOI: 10.31696/2072-8271-2022-3-3-56-060-076

Gudev Pavel, Mishin Igor
American-Chinese Controversies around the Taiwan Strait (Part 2. Legal Interpretations and Controversies). Yugo-Vostochnaya Aziya: aktual'nyye problemy razvitiya, 2022, № 4 (57). Pp. 30–45. DOI: 10.31696/2072-8271-2022-4-4-57-030-045

Gudev Pavel
Russia and China in the "trap" of justice: how the Beijing''s defeat in international arbitration will affect the interests of Moscow? (Part 1.)

Gudev Pavel
Russia and China in the "trap" of justice: how the Beijing''s defeat in international arbitration will affect the interests of Moscow? (Part 2.)

Gudev Pavel
The Sea of Okhotsk: Success or Concessions?

Gudev Pavel
Политико-правовые аспекты американо-иранского противостояния в Ормузском проливе и прилежащих к нему акваториях: правовые интерпретации // Восток. Афро-азиатские общества: история и современность = Vostok (Oriens). 2020. № 2. С. 161-176. DOI 10.31857/S086919080009166-9.

Grigoriev Mikhail
Условия развития транзитного потенциала Северного Морского Пути [Текст] / М. Н. Григорьев // Контуры глобальных трансформаций: политика, экономика, право. – 2019. – Т. 12. – № 5. – С. 109-129. DOI: 10.23932/2542-0240-2019-12-5-109-129.

Gudev Pavel
Политико-правовые аспекты американо-иранского противостояния в Ормузском проливе и прилежащих к нему акваториях: версии произошедшего // Восток. Афро-азиатские общества: история и современность = Vostok (Oriens). 2020. № 1. С. 94-110. DOI 10.31857/S086919080008450-2.

Gudev Pavel
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Regime Transformation Problems. Moscow, IMEMO RAN, 2014, 201 p.

Gudev Pavel
Asia-Pacific: Maritime Conflicts’ Political and Legal Background

Gudev Pavel
The Evolution of the USA Maritime Policy // International Trends, 2012, № 10, №2. P. 57–67.

Todorov Andrey
Future work of the International Seabed Authority in the context of the Arctic governance

Gudev Pavel
Перспективы формирования международного режима в Арктике [Текст] / П. Гудев // Международная жизнь. – 2014. – №  2. – С. 88 – 101.

Todorov Andrey
Arctic Port State Control as a Tool of Enforcement of the Polar Code

Gudev Pavel, Kramnik Ilya
Канал влияния? // Россия в глобальной политике. 2021. Т. 19, № 3 (109). С. 150-160.

Gudev Pavel
The Sea of Okhotsk: Gain or Giveaway? [Text] / P.A. Gudev // Far Eastern Affairs. – 2016. – Vol. 44. – № 1. – P. 120 – 132.
Related publications


Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







First news
Institute News
18/04/2024

On April 18-19, 2024, the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), Moscow, will host the international young scholars conference «Ideologies at crossroads: old concepts and new paradigms».

more...

17/04/2024

The All-Russian Scientific Conference "Digital Space of Scientific Communication: Internet History and Development of Science" was held at INION of the Russian Academy of Sciences, dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the Russian segment of the Internet and the 15th anniversary of the electronic scientific and educational journal "History".

more...

Recently Published