Subkhangulova Kseniia
Family policy of the Scandinavian countries: Response to demographic challenges. Social and labor research. 2023;50(1):117-130. DOI: 10.34022/2658-3712-2022-50-1-117-130.
Publication Type:

ISSN 2658-3712

DOI 10.34022/2658-3712-2022-50-1-117-130

The object of the study is demographic processes and family policy in the Scandinavian countries. The relevance of the study is due to the severity of the demographic challenges of developed modern states and the need for effective responses. The research tasks are to reveal and explain the specifics of the development of demographic processes in the Scandinavian countries, the characteristics of the model, and the main directions of the current family policy of these states and to identify their successful practices in supporting families with children and promoting healthy and active longevity. The research methodology is based on the consideration of demographic processes from the standpoint of the concepts of demographic transition and the multivariance of demographic development; analysis of the family policy of the Scandinavian states within the framework of the typology of social policy models; using the tools of theoretical generalization and statistical analysis of domestic and international organizations’ data. The results of the study show that the family policy of the Scandinavian countries is characterized by a broad scale of state support for the population, determined by the high level of economic development and the generosity of public spending, which is inherent in the social model of these countries. Most of the measures and funding are aimed at improving the welfare and living conditions of families with children, providing coverage of material support for all categories of families with children; a decent amount of payments for each child; availability of different support options for parents depending on their choice between work or childcare, etc. A developed healthcare system, including preventive care and a set of measures to counter the social isolation of lonely people, contributes to improving the quality of life of the elderly population and lengthening its healthy and active period. Despite the objective limitations of the state's ability to influence demographic processes, the Scandinavian countries successfully counter the decline in the birth rate, increasing life expectancy and reducing mortality, which contributes to maintaining natural population growth. The area of application of the research results is to take into account the Scandinavian experience, which can help improve domestic family policy and expand its capabilities in helping to increase the sustainability of Russia's demographic development.

Keywords: Scandinavian countries | demographic transition | population aging | fertility rate decline | social democratic model | parental leave | healthy and active longevity |

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