Ibragimov Ibragim
The Role of Leaders in Formulation of the Foreign Policy Identity in Egypt. MGIMO Review of International Relations. 2021;14(4):70-90. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24833/2071-8160-2021-4-79-70-90
Publication Type:

ISSN 2071-8160

DOI 10.24833/2071-8160-2021-4-79-70-90

The features of the formation of the of the state explains the high level of interest in this scientific problem in the modern theory of international relations. The study of for eign policy identity is capable of providing an understanding of the policy-making activity of the state and its positioning in the international arena. The process of forming a foreign policy identity linked to both objective and subjective factors. The objective factors should be classified as geographical, historical, cultural and religious, the key subjective factors can be considered the role of a leader. This factor is standard for Middle Eastern states, especially for Egypt, where there are traditions of strong centralized powers. Egyptian leaders have supreme power in foreign policy decisions within the framework of the political system. Egypt's foreign policy is often determined by the personal character traits of the country's leaders. This article aims to study the role of the head of the Egypt in the search for foreign policy identity in the context of an identity crisis at the national level. Egypt has a long history of authoritarian rule, because it is impossible to separate national identity from foreign policy identity. Since its independent existence, each period with its own context established a different framework of identity and worldview for decision-makers in the field of Egypt`s foreign policy. The predominance of various elements in ideological as well as worldview in the age of the rule of a particular president has led to noticeable differences in Egypt's foreign policy at the current stage. This article attempts to answer the following research questions: What place does of the institute of the heads of State in foreign policy decisions? How leader's influence does determine the foreign policy role of the state? What changes in foreign policy priorities have taken place during the analysis period? What are the reasons for the differences between the main periods of Egypt's foreign policy in goals, tools and approaches to the outside world? The author comes to the conclusion that the change of the political leader plays an important role in the transformations of Egypt's foreign policy. The article analyzes the main trends in the foreign policy self-perception of Egypt in order to confirm the hypothesis that the foreign policy identity of Egypt had not evolved a discontinuity even in the conditions of dramatic events, whether it is the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Peace treaty with Israel or the events of the Arab Spring.

Keywords: foreign policy identity | role of leadership | Egypt | foreign policy | Middle East |

Russian Science Citation Index


Frolov Alexander
Ближний Восток: традиции и трансформации [Текст] / А.В. Фролов, Р. Мустафин // Международная жизнь. – 2014. – № 8. – С. 45 – 62.

Ближний Восток: политика и идентичность / под ред. И.Д. Звягельской; ИМЭМО РАН. – М.: Изд-во «Аспект-Пресс», 2020. – 336 с.

Kalinina Natalia
The Middle East: Hello to Russian Arms!

Surkov Nikolay
Тренды Ближнего Востока и Центральной Азии [Текст] = Contemporary trends in the Middle East and Central Asia / Н. Ю. Сурков // Вестник МГИМО - Университета. – 2018. – № 6(63). – С. 325-333. DOI: 10.24833/2071-8160-2018-6-63-325-333. – Рец. на кн.: Звягельская И.Д. Ближний Восток и Центральная Азия: Глобальные тренды в региональном исполнении. – М.: Аспект Пресс, 2018. – 224 с.

Frolov Alexander
Политика США в меняющемся мире [Текст] / А.В. Кортунов, А.В. Фролов // Международная жизнь. – 2015. – № 11. – С. 5 – 26

Zvyagelskaya Irina, Bogacheva Anastasia, Davydov Alexey, Ibragimov Ibragim, Lazovskii Stanislav, Samarskaia Liudmila, Svistunova Irina, Surkov Nikolay, Tyukaeva Tatiana
Российская политика на Ближнем Востоке: перспективы и вызовы // Свободная мысль. 2021. № 6 (1690). С. 71-85. DOI 10.24412/0869-4435-2021-61690-71-86.

The Middle East through the Eyes of Young Researchers (Global Development, iss. 20) / Zvyagel'skaya I.D., Rovinskaya T.L., Timofeev P.P., eds. – Moscow, IMEMO, 2019. – 215

The Middle East: Politics and Identity

Aleshin Alexander
The UK’s Role in Shaping the Anti-Russian Policy of the West

Surkov Nikolay
"Sisi doctrine”: Egypt and the Great Powers after the “Arab spring”. Comparative study of Cairo’s relations with Washington, Beijing and Moscow // Bulletin of Udmurt University. Sociology. Political Science. International Relations. 2023. Vol. 7, iss. 1. P. 76–87. https://doi.org/10.35634/2587-9030-2023-7-1-76-87 (In Russ.).

Surkov Nikolay
Charismatic Leadership in the Middle East and North Africa in the 21 st Century: Regional Specifics and Prospects for the Evolution of the Phenomenon

Ivanov Stanislav
Where does the middle East “Arab spring”? / Ivanov S.M.

Svistunova Irina
Turkey’s Regional Policy: the Strategy toward African Countries

Avatkov Vladimir, Sbitneva A.
Political course of modern Turke. The main features of domestic and foreign policy of 2019

Bogacheva Anastasia, Davydov Alexey, Ibragimov Ibragim, Zvyagelskaya Irina, Kobrinskaya Irina, Samarskaia Liudmila, Svistunova Irina, Surkov Nikolay
Ближний Восток в тисках кризиса. Поиски выхода // Свободная мысль. 2020. № 5 (1683). С. 123-136. DOI 10.24411/0869-4435-2020-00010.

Malysheva Dina
The Middle East between turbulence and development

Semenenko Irina
Political Identity and Identity Politics / Semenenko Irina S.

Avatkov Vladimir
Внешняя и внутренняя политика Турции. Ключевые изменения 2020 г. // Свободная мысль. 2021. № 1 (1685). С. 81-90.

Bogacheva Anastasia, Ibragimov Ibragim, Kozhanov Nikolay, Lazovskii Stanislav, Svistunova Irina, Surkov Nikolay, Samarskaia Liudmila
The Middle East in the Second Wave of the Coronavirus Crisis. Outlines of global transformations: politics, economics, law. 2020;13(5):158–180. https://doi.org/10.23932/2542-0240-2020-13-5-10.

Lunev Sergey
Foreign policy of India and the impact of the endogenous factors
Related publications

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment

First news
Institute News

On June 13, 2024, the Conference “New World Order and Technological Revolution” of the IMEMO Center for International Security will be held in the Academician Inozemtsev conference hall (3rd floor).



On June 10, 2024, the website of the journal “Russia in Global Affairs” published an article “Victory in Defiance” by Leyla Turayanova on the June 4 results of general elections to the lower house of parliament in India.


Recently Published