Todorov Andrey
Dire straits of the Russian Arctic: Options and challenges for a potential US FONOP in the Northern Sea Route // Marine Policy. 2022. Vol. 139, Art. 105020. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105020.
Publication Type:


ISSN 0308-597X

DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105020

Against the backdrop of growing tensions in the Arctic there are increasing discussions in the US on whether a Freedom of Navigation Operation (FONOP) is needed in the Northern Sea Route (NSR) to assert the state's disagreement with the Russian maritime claims in the Arctic. This paper focuses on the Russian claims with regard to the NSR that could be deemed valid targets for a FONOP. The analysis shows that the US Navy would have only few options for a potential operational assertion. The most viable of them is to transit through certain straits in the eastern part of the NSR. Given the lack of surface ice strengthened warships in the US Navy, a FONOP in the eastern areas of the NSR would imply significant operational risks related to harsh ice conditions even in the summer season. All that, coupled with other factors, gives reason to suggest that for the time being the US will set aside plans for a FONOP in the Russian Arctic waters.    

I would like to express special gratitude to Marina Todorova for helping me with the illustrations, Elizabeth Hanlon for a thorough proof-reading and valuable comments, and Cornell Overfield, with whom I had a long and fruitful correspondence inspiring me to write this article.


Keywords: Freedom of navigation | Arctic | Russia | USA | Northern Sea Route | Maritime claims |

Russian Science Citation Index



OTHER PUBLICATIONS ON THIS TOPIC

Todorov Andrey
Russias implementation of the Polar Code on the Northern Sea Route // Polar Journal. 2021. Vol. 11, Issue 1. P. 30-42. DOI 10.1080/2154896X.2021.1911044.

Grigoriev Mikhail
Development of Transit Potential of the Northern Sea Route // : , , . 2021. Vol. 14, Special Issue. P. 81-97. DOI 10.23932/2542-0240-2019-12-5-109-129.

Vylegzhanin A., Bunik I., Torkunova E., Kienko Elena
Navigation in the Northern Sea Route: interaction of Russian and international applicable law // Polar Journal. 2020. Vol. 10, Issue 2. P. 285-302. DOI 10.1080/2154896X.2020.1844404.

Kupriyanov Alexey
Constructing the Arcto-Pacific: New Challenges and Opportunities // Russia in Global Affairs. 2020. Issue 4. P. 178-191. DOI 10.31278/1810-6374-2020-18-4-178-191

Zagorskii Andrei
Konflikt in den Köpfen: Kritik der Versicherheitlichung der Arktis // Osteuropa. 2020. Issue 5. P. 81-98. DOI 10.35998/oe-2020-0031.

Huntington H., Olsen J., Zagorskii Andrei
Effects of Arctic commercial shipping on environments and communities: context, governance, priorities // Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2023. Vol. 118, Art. 103731. DOI 10.1016/j.trd.2023.103731.

Huntington Henry P., Zagorskii Andrei, Kaltenborn Bjørn P., Hyoung Chul Shin, Dawson J., Lukin M., Dahl P., Peiqing Guo, Thomas D.
Societal implications of a changing Arctic Ocean // Ambio. 2021. DOI 10.1007/s13280-021-01601-2. URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-021-01601-2. Published: 19.07.2021.

Todorov Andrey
Coping with deficiencies in the Polar Code: a Russian perspective // Polar Journal. 2020. DOI 10.1080/2154896X.2020.1799615. URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/2154896X.2020.1799615?journalCode=rpol20. Published online: 07.09.2020.

Todorov Andrey
Russia in maritime areas off Spitsbergen (Svalbard): Is it worth opening the Pandora's Box? // Marine Policy. 2020. DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104264. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0308597X20309106?via%3Dihub#!. Published online: 22.10.2020.

Mishin Igor
U.S. Policy in the South China Sea During the Presidency of D. Trump // Russian Politics & Law. 2021. Vol. 58, Issue 3-4. P. 155-172. DOI 10.1080/10611940.2022.2111939. URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10611940.2022.2111939?journalCode=mrup20. Published online: 06.10.2022

Gudev Pavel
Les problématiques et perspectives de la route maritime arctique [Text] / P. A. Gudev // Perspectives Libres. 2019. Issue 24-25. . 173-212. URL:https://cerclearistote.com/2019/05/parution-du-perspectives-libres-n24-les-nouvelles-routes-de-la-soie/

Nikitina Elena
limate Change in the Arctic: Adaptation to New Challenges. Outlines of global transformations: politics, economics, law. 2021;14(4):111-128

Pusenkova Nina
Arctic Offshore Oil in Russia: Optimism, Pessimism and Realism // : , , . 2021. Vol. 14, Special Issue. P. 62-80. DOI 10.23932/2542-0240-2019-12-5-86-108.

Kanaev Evgeny, Sumsky Victor
Russias Place in a Polycentric Naval Setup [Text] / V. Sumsky, E. Kanaev // Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India. 2015. V. 24. Issue 2. P. 9 15.

The Arctic: A Space of Cooperation and Common Security By ed. A.V. Zagorsky. Moscow, IMEMO RAN, 2010, 41 p.

Nikitina Elena , Kelman I., Sydnes A.K.
Norway-Russia disaster diplomacy for Svalbard // Safety Science. 2020. Vol. 130, P. 104896. DOI 10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104896.

Lukonin Sergey
Far East Development Policy in Putin's Fourth Term and New Directions for Korea - Russia Economic Cooperation [Text] / Joungho Park, Boogyun Kang, Jiyoung Min, Sergey Lukonin, Olga Kuznetsova // World Economy Brief. 2019. Vol. 9. Issue 2. P. 2233-9140.

Voronov Konstantin
Perceptions of Russia in the european North: signs of the times / K. Voronov //Russian politics and law. 2010. V. 48. 6. P.35-50.

Dynkin Alexander
International Cooperation in the Arctic: Risks and Opportunities [Text] / .. Dynkin // Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2015. V. 85. Issue 3. . 198 205.

Pusenkova Nina
Arctic Petroleum: Local CSR Perceptions in the Nenets Region of Russia [Text] / N. Pusenkova, J.S.P. Loe, I. Kelman, D.B. Fjartoft // Social Responsibility Journal. 2017. Vol. 13. Issue 2. . 307-322
Related publications


Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







First news
Institute News
27/11/2023

On November 27, 2023, the scientific-expert forum «Primakov Readings» started its work in Moscow. It is an annual international meeting of experts to discuss scenarios of the development of international relations, challenges in the sphere of international security, as well as new models of interaction of global political actors.

more...

27/11/2023

On November 27-28, 2023 the IX International Forum "Primakov Readings" will be held in Moscow at the World Trade Center. The theme of the Forum is "Postglobalization Horizons"

more...

Recently Published