The 9th International Scientific and Expert Forum Primakov Readings


The second day of the Forum


On November 27, 2023, the scientific-expert forum «Primakov Readings» started its work in Moscow. It is an annual international meeting of experts to discuss scenarios of the development of international relations, challenges in the sphere of international security, as well as new models of interaction of global political actors.


© Photo: S. Kliuev

Opening Remarks by Yury Ushakov, Aide to the President of the Russian Federation, Chairman of the Organizing Committee

Opening Remarks by Konstantin Kosachev, Deputy Chairman of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation

Opening Remarks by Sergey Katyrin, President of the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Opening Remarks by Alexander Dynkin, President of Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences

PANEL DISCUSSION 1. Political Risks for Global Energy Markets

The years 2022–2023 became a period of another dramatic shock for the world economy, especially affecting the global energy sector. Following the 2020–2021 pandemic, which caused lockdowns, massive reduction in travel and a sharp drop in fossil fuels demand, leading to negative peak oil prices, political events of the last year shook the energy market once again. The rise of gas prices in Europe above the level of $3,000 per 1,000 cubic meters as a result of the sanctions and reduction of Russian gas supplies to the European market, as well as the introduction of a price ceiling for Russian oil supplies, forced all energy market players to reconsider their strategies and quickly change their usual development guidelines. Such shocks not only destroy sustainable development dynamics, but also give new impetus to those companies seeking to establish themselves in perspective areas and occupy new market niches with high growth potential. Challenges and opportunities in a turbulent environment raise the successful ones and make it difficult for those who, ignoring political risks, do not see the consequences of the ongoing changes, relying on the usual standards of established approaches. How fast and dynamic will the changes in transport logistics be with a reorientation to the East, how effective can the payments between countries in national currencies become, how will the global financial market change influenced by the move away from the dollar in the oil business?

© Photo: S. Kliuev

Moderator – Elena Telegina, Dean of the Faculty of International Energy Business, Gubkin University of Oil and Gas 

Sergey Ivanov, Special Presidential Representative for Environmental Protection, Ecology and Transport

Vladimir Milovidov, Deputy Director for Scientific Work, Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)

Sergey Kudryashov, General Director of Zarubezhneft JSC 

Mehdi Sanaei, Associate Professor at the University of Tehran, Iran (online)

Stanislav Zhukov, Deputy Director for Scientific Work, Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) 


Speech by Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov

© Photo: S. Kliuev

 Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s remarks and answers to media questions at the Primakov Readings International Forum


PANEL DISCUSSION 2. The Middle East: the Tragedy and Challenges of the Unresolved Conflict

The escalation of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict , large-scale armed clashes and numerous civilian casualties have generated a powerful public reaction in the Middle East and beyond. The tragic events have become a serious challenge for the states of the region. While the beginning of the post-globalization era has opened up for them an opportunity to pursue their national interests through a more diversified policy, the consequences of the bloodshed threaten stability of the fragile states and may slow down the implementation of development strategies in the prosperous ones. Under the current conditions, trends aimed at de-escalation have been pushed back or frozen. It is obvious that priority in the Middle East should be given to security issues and to a search for political settlement of the Palestinian problem.

© Photo: S. Kliuev

Moderator – Vitaly Naumkin, Scientific Director of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences 

Hasan Unal, Professor of the Department of Political Science and International Relations, Başkent University, Türkiye

Seyed Mohammad Kazem Sajjadpour, Senior Distinguished Fellow at the Institute for Political and International Studies (IPIS), Professor of International Relations, School of International Relations, Iran

Ali Al Ahmad, Advisor to the Russian Centre of Science and Culture (RCSC) in Damascus, Syria

Ramzi Ezzeldin Ramzi, Former Senior Under Secretary at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, former Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations and Deputy Special Envoy for Syria (2014–2019) (online)

Irina Zvyagelskaya, Head of the Center for the Middle East Studies, Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)


PANEL DISCUSSION 3. China – U.S.: Competition, Interdependence, Global Context

The U.S.-China competition is becoming protracted, and the consequences of this confrontation are spreading to many spheres of the world economy and politics. As mutual political trust between the two countries decreases, the threat of military conflict is growing. What can Washington and Beijing do to maintain peace and stability in Pacific Asia? The volume of trade between the U.S. and China, which had grown enormously over several decades, began to decline in 2023. Does this mean a retreat of economic rationality under the pressure from geopolitical goals? The initial premise of the “trade war” was the expectation that China was too dependent on export markets and would therefore be forced to accept American demands. The Western policy of “decoupling” and “risk reduction” have been accompanied by an expansion in the use of trade barriers and technological bans. If the world moves towards a new bipolarity, what will happen to the global economy, how inevitable is the prospect of the emergence of parallel production systems, standards and markets? Are the U.S. and China ready to become leaders of two rival blocs?

Moderator – Sergey Ryabkov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation 

Zhang Yuyan, Director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics (IWEP), Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), China (online)

Robert Legvold, Professor Emeritus of the Department of Political Science, Columbia University, USA (online)

Li Yongquan, Chairman of the All-China Association for the Study of Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Director of the Institute of Social Development of Europe and Asia of the Development Research Center of the State Council of the PRC, China

Sergey Kislitsyn, Acting Director of the Institute for the US and Canadian Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences 

Alexander Lomanov, Deputy Director for Scientific Work of Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)

Western world has lost its moral high ground – Hasan Unal (27.11.2023,

If we continue to create partition, we won’t achieve world peace – Mustafa Bello (27.11.2023,

BRICS plays important role in regional development – Jawaharlal Nehru University assistant professor (27.11.2023,

We see the Israel-Hamas ceasefire as a positive – South Africa's Ambassador to Russia (27.11.2023,

Les conférences Primakov, plateforme de discussion réunissant des experts internationaux, se sont tenues à Moscou pour la neuvième fois. L'événement phare de la journée a été le discours de Sergueï Lavrov (27.11.2023,

Conférences Primakov : messages clés du forum annuel (27.11.2023,


Lavrov : «les politiciens occidentaux commencent à reconnaître que la multipolarité est nécessaire» (27.11.2023,

Lavrov : «aux problèmes régionaux des solutions régionales» (27.11.2023,

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