Models of Oil Exporting Countries Inclusion into Oil Refining Global Value Chains

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-1-99-109

O. Klochko (,
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, 20, Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation;
A. Grigorova (,
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs, 20, Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation


The main purpose of the research is to identify key models of oil exporting countries inclusion into oil refining global value chains. The countries possess high potential of integration into the processing sector with higher value added, but tend to implement it with different degrees of efficiency. Positive balance of foreign trade in refined oil products, calculated in value added terms, can be accompanied by dependence of country’s exports on foreign value added content, and negative balance can be explained by country’s imports of intermediate products with low level of processing to insure domestic production. Five of eight analyzed oil exporting countries show positive dynamics of inclusion into oil refining global value chains. The world biggest oil exporter, Saudi Arabia, doesn’t rely on foreign value added in its exports, whereas country’s forward participation index in global oil refining sector is very high. USA, Canada and Norway pursue specific models of integration into oil processing, which are developed in compliance with countries’ energy policies and aimed to create higher value added. Despite Kazakhstan dependence on Russian economy the country reduces foreign value-added content in its exports of oil refining products and improves participation in GVC. Two of the world leading oil exporters, Mexico and Brazil, demonstrate negative dynamics of inclusion into oil processing sector. High dependence of production on foreign value added, negative balance of foreign trade and poor integration into complex links within value chains are key parameters of ineffective GVC inclusion. The case of Russian Federation could be identified as positive integration with some obstacles. High volumes of Russian exports in oil refining products, positive trade balance in value added terms and high GVC forward participation index are accompanied by country’s increasing dependence on foreign value-added which forces Russia to rethink its participation in global refining sector and implement supporting policies.


global value chains, oil refining industry, oil production, oil exporting countries


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For citation:
Klochko O., Grigorova A. Models of Oil Exporting Countries Inclusion into Oil Refining Global Value Chains. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, No 1, pp. 99-109.

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