Islamophobia in American Context

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-11-76-83

I. Shumilina (,
Institute for the USA & Canada Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Khlebnyi Per., Moscow, 123995, Russian Federation 


The period of Donald Trump’s ruling the White House has been marked by a non-typical phenomenon for the USA – the emergence of atmosphere of pressuring by the “white majority” on the Muslim minority. The latteris tending to call it “Open Islamophobia” encouraged by the President’s entourage. The American Muslims responded to it in two tracks: through intensifying efforts to annihilate the storm centers of radicalism in their milieu and through establishing a movement of political activists named “Blue Wave” aiming at gaining positions in legislative bodies. It is likely that the topic designated as “Islam and Muslims in America” is getting constant for the political life of this country, and that at all levels – from the local municipalities to the federal Congress. The situation within the Muslim communities in the USA is rather different from that in most European countries with their frequent dominance of one ethnical Muslim group over other ones (North African Arabs in France or Turks in Germany). Given a number of historical reasons, most of Muslim communities have been shaped as multi-ethnical thanks to Islam as a tool and “umbrella” for the people’s getting together. Islam became an instrument of self-identification for the natives from different ethnical groupings – Arabs, Pakistanis, Malaysians, Indonesians, etc. It means that unification and integration patterns in interpretation of Islam have been required the most. It actually leads to erosion of the radical potential within the Muslim communities. 


Islam, Islamophobia, immigrants, racism, Blue Wave, American Muslims, radicalism, extremism 


1. The Global Terrorism Database – START. University of Maryland, 2017. Available at: (accessed 02.04.2019).

2. Goldman D. Separating Violent and Peaceful Islam. Asia Times, 11.12.2015. Available at: (accessed 29.04.2019).

3. Tibi B. Between Islam and Islamism. Manchester University Press, 30.07.2018. Available at: (accessed 29.04.2019).

4. Donald Trump Sits Down with Bill O’Reilly. Fox News, 30.03.2011. Available at: (accessed 25.04.2019).

5. Trump D. Refugees from Syria Are Now Pouring into Our Great Country. Who Knows Who They Are – Some Could Be ISIS. Is Our President Insane? 17.11.2015. Available at: (accessed 25.04.2019).

6. Cole D. First Muslim Elected to Congress: “Objective Evidence” says Trump Sympathetic to White Supremacy. CNN News, 18.03.2019. Available at: (accessed 25.04.2019).

7. Bouamama S. The Making of Contemporary Identity-Based Islamophobia. Countering the Islamophobia Industry: Toward More Effective Strategies. Atlanta, Carter Center, May 2018, pp. 23-27.

8. Lewis B. Islam and the West. Oxford. Oxford University Press, 1994. 240 p.

9. Lewis B. The Roots of Muslim Rage. The Atlantic Monthly, September 1990, vol. 266, no. 3, pp. 47-60.

10. Islam and the West: A Conversation with Bernard Lewis. Pew Research Center. April 27, 2006. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

11. Huntington S. Stolknovenie tsivilizatsii [The Clash of Civilization]. Moscow, AST, 2003. 603 p.

12. Lewis B. Poslednee nastuplenie islama? [The last offensive of Islam?] Russia in global affairs, 2007, no. 5. Available at: (accessed 28.06.2019).

13. Shumilina I.V. Amerikano-arabskii kinodialog [U.S. – Arab Film Dialogue]. Vestnik analitiki, 2005, no. 22, pp. 47-60.

14. Allen C., Nielsen J. Summary Report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001. Vienna, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, 2002. 62 p.

15. Critical Views of Islam Grow amid Continued Unfamiliarity. ABC News Poll: Views of Islam – 9/7/03. September 11, 2003. 4 p. Available at: (accessed 08.07.2019).

16. Shumilina I.V. Proarabskoe lobbi v SShA: mezhdu politikoi i energetikoi [Pro-Arab Lobby in the USA]. USA v Canada: Economics – Politics – Culture, 2015, no. 4, pp. 18-34.

17. The American Public and the Arab Awakening. A Study of American Public Opinion. University of Maryland. April 11, 2011. 14 p. Available at: (accessed 28.06.2019).

18. Survey Examines Perceptions of Muslim Americans. New America, 2018, November 1. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

19. Shaheen J. Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People. New York, Olive Branch Press, 2014. 618 p.

20. Moodod T. No Such Things as Anti-Muslim Rasism? The Political Quarterly, 2018. April 3. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

21. Suleiman M. The Arab Community in the United States: A Review and an Assessment of the State of Research and Writing on Arab Americans. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 2010, April, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 39-55.

22. CAIR: Who We Are. Washington, CAIR, 2015, March 2. Available at: (accessed 01.07.2019).

23. Arshad O., Setlur V., Siddiqui U. with contributions from Setlur J., Yan D., Zhou S. Are Muslims Collectively Responsible? Available at: (accessed 01.07.2019).

24. Beydoun Kh. US Liberal Islamophobia Is Rising – and More Insidious Than Rightwing Bigotry. The Guardian, 26.05.2018. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

25. Kane A. Author Deepa Kumar on the Imperial Roots of Anti-Muslim Sentiment (interview). Mondoweiss, July 2, 2012. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

26. Muslims in America: Immigrants and Those Born in U. S. See Life Differently in Many Ways. Pew Research Center. April 17, 2018. Available at: (accessed 27.04.2019).

27. U. S. Muslims Concerned about Their Place in Society, but Continue to Believe in the American Dream. Pew Research Center. July 26, 2017. Available at: (accessed 23.04.2019).

28. Running on Hate. 2018 Pre-election Report. Muslim Advocates. October 22, 2018. Available at: (accessed 29.05.2019).

29. Chouchoud Y. What’s the Hidden Story Behind American Muslim Poverty? ISPU, October 2, 2018. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

30. U. S. Muslims Concerned about Their Place in Society, but Continue to Believe in the American Dream. Nine-in-ten U. S. Muslims Proud to be American. Pew Research Center. July 26, 2017. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2019).

Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Shumilina I. Islamophobia in American Context. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2019, vol. 63, No 11, pp. 76-83.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment

Current Issue
2020, vol. 64, No. 3
Topical Themes of the Issue:

  • World Economy and Energy at the Turn: Search for an Alternative Development Model
  • Stop or Deadlock? The U.S. Elites about the INF Crisis
  • Social Base and Prospects of Populism in Western Countries
  • The Crisis of the Union State of Belarus and Russia
View This Issue (2020, vol. 64, No. 3)
Send article

Dear readers!
Please note that free access to full-text issues of the Journal is being opened at our WEB-site after 6 months of the date of publications. Currently, the releases of 2015–2018 are available for free. The work on deepening the open archive of full-text issues will be continued.

Dear readers!
This is to inform the researchers of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations that electronic version of the 4-nd issue of 2019 of French magazine Politique étrangère is now available. Those who are interested, please personally address to the editorial staff of MEMO Journal (room 18-17) with an electronic media (e-mailing is not possible because of technical reasons).


In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“The Common Spaces”. The XX century was marked by the process of active development of the so-called common spaces, namely the World ocean, outer space and the Internet which, due to various reasons, were previously perceived as peripheral for the mankind and were not used at all or less intensively. Since then, the degree of their development and usage is constantly increasing. Even though the prospects of obtaining material dividends from their use are often extremely remote, the level of competition there is steadily increasing, resulting in growing inter-state conflicts’ potential.

“Silk Road and prospects of Great Eurasia”. It is planned to publish materials concerning the Chinese project of Silk Road and its impact on the socio-economic development of various countries in Eurasia and the integration processes in this mega-region.

“Africa today and tomorrow”The rubric devoted to contemporary issues of Africa which is attracting growing interest of the world's leading actors. We plan to publish the articles analyzing the status of statehood, socio-economic and political development of the countries of Black continent, as well as the integration processes between them.

“Civilization processes of modern development” is a new rubric opened by MEMO Journal in 2020. It will be devoted to the analysis of the influence of civilizational factors and inter-civilizational interactions on the political and socio-economic development of the world at whole, regions and countries.

Dear colleagues, authors and readers!

We kindly request you to turn to editor-in-chief and executive secretary directly concerning reviewing scientific publications in our journal. Only editor-in-chief takes decision on order and publication the reviews!


"World Eonomy and International Relations" announces a contest for the best joint academic publications of domestic and foreign researchers and experts in topical issues of the world economy and international relations. The winners will be selected according to the results of peer reviewing and discussion at the Editorial Board. The articles will be published in priority order.


The print version of “World Economy and International Relations” journal is distributed by advance subscription only, and is not offered for retail sale. To subscribe please address to any post office in Russia by referring to the Federal Postal Service Union Catalogue, section “ARSMI”, the journal index is 70542. The subscription may be made for the whole subscription period or starting from any nearest available month for desired number of issues.

To purchase the full-text electronic version of the journal’s issue/article please address to the WEB portal of Scientific electronic library or URL:

In journal
                     Full Archive
                     Articles by year
                     Authors by year
2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 |

The author’s opinions may not coincide with the position of editorial