T. Rovinskaya (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
The research contains an analysis of the U.S. state environmental policy development in the second half of the 19th century and in the 20th century (up to early 1980s), which proceeded under the influence and with direct involvement of the American Conservationist Movement (later transformed into the American Green Movement). The author scrutinizes stages and milestones of the U.S. environmental legislation elaboration, state environmental policies under different presidential administrations up to the “turning point” (Ronald Reagan’s election in 1981). Despite the traditional acute struggle for power between the two main U.S. political players – the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, presidential administrations of either had considered the nature protection activities an important integral part of domestic policy by default. By the beginning of 1980s, the American federal environmental legislation regulated the following issues: wilderness preservation; control over public fresh water systems, toxic agents, pesticide use; ocean dumping of shore-generated waste; rivers protection; cleaning of territory from radioactive wastes; pollutions scientific research; standard setting; ecological monitoring; law enforcement. Attention was also paid to acid rains, air visibility and global warming issues. The greatest part of currently functioning state environmental protection agencies had been created before the early 1980s boundary. The situation underwent a 180-degree turn in 1981 when President-Republican Ronald Reagan entered the office. Hence, the Republican Party representatives in power demonstrated a solely pragmatic approach to the environmental protection prioritizing the economic benefit. A correlation between the United States’ historical development, specifics of the U.S. domestic environmental policy and its impact on the international environmental protection activities are also traced in the article.
1. Hughes R., Ramdhanie K., Wassermann T., Moscetti C. State Boards of Health: Governance and Politics. Available at: https://www.aslme.org/media/downloadable/files/links/0/8/08.Hughes.pdf (accessed 15.01.2018).
2. Stephen R. The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Madison (Wisconsin), University of Visconsin Press, 1985. 436 p. Available at: https://books.google.ru/books?id=kV1_k5vSuOMC&pg=PA107&redir_esc=y&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 15.01.2018).
3. Buenker J.D., Burnham J.C., Crunden R. M. Progressivism. Cambridge, Schenkman Books, 1977. 152 p.
4. Pinchot G. Breaking New Ground. Washington D.C., Island Press, 1947. 523 p.
5. Documents from the February 9, 1888 Meeting of the Boone and Crockett Club. Available at: http://cdm16013.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p16013coll13/id/1220/rec/1 (accessed 15.01.2018).
6. Todd Benson W. President Theodore Roosevelt's Conservations Legacy. Haverford, Infinity Publishing, 2003. 258 p.
7. Opening Address by the President. Proceedings of a Conference of Governors. Available at: http://lcweb4.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/consrv:@field(DOCID+@lit(amrvgvg16div19)) (accessed 15.01.2018).
8. Cahn R. The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-33. Salt Lake City, Howe Brothers, 1985. 340 p.
9. Woolner D.B., Henderson H.L., eds. FDR and the Environment. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 270 p.
10. Maher N. M. Nature's New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Roots of the American Environmental Movement. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007. 328 p.
11. CCC Brief History. Civilian Conservation Corps Legacy. Available at: http://www.ccclegacy.org/ (accessed 15.01.2018).
12. Bolen E.G., Robinson W. L. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Fith Edition. New Jersey, Pearson, 2002. 634 p.
13. Fairchild W. B. Renewable Resources: a World Dilemma: Recent Publications on Conservation. Geographical Review, 1949, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 86-98.
14. Legislation. The Look at U. S. Air Pollution Laws and Their Amendments. Available at: https://www.ametsoc.org/sloan/cleanair/cleanairlegisl.html (accessed 10.05.2018).
15. About the WSR Act. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Available at: https://www.rivers.gov/wsr-act.php (accessed 24.10.2017).
16. Our Mission and What We Do. US Environmental Protection Agency. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ourmission-and-what-we-do (accessed 15.01.2018).
Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX