Ecological Tourism in South European Countries

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-2-73-82

G. Ponedelko (,
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997, Russian Federation;
Y. Kvashnin (,
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997, Russian Federation;
A. Gutnik (,
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997, Russian Federation;
O. Trofimova (,
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997, Russian Federation 


In recent years, the problems of ecological tourism in the EU provoked wide-ranging discussions. Should ecotourism as a new form of tourism be massive, limited or elite to address issues of sustainable environmental management? Where to find money to increase funding for ecotourism projects? Can ecotourism ever be a real and effective way to preserve natural biodiversity? In this article it is shown how these issues are addressed in South European countries, which are ranked among top destinations of international tourism. Due to their unique natural wealth these countries have a clear potential to diversify their tourism industry through ecotourism. However, a number of factors impede realization of that potential in practice – economic difficulties caused by consequences of the global financial crisis, the lack of investment, the established reputation of South European countries as directions of a “sun and beach tourism” (at best – of a cultural tourism). Another limitation caused by the relative novelty of ecotourism is deficiency of comprehensive programmes for its development and promotion, which would unite and coordinate efforts of the main actors – the states, European funds, non-governmental organizations and private companies. However, a further growth of ecotourism, as well as its share in the tourist market, is likely to continue, since it has strong incentives both on supply and demand sides (the interest of tourists for new types of leisure and the need to find new sources to finance environment-related projects). 


ecological tourism, sustainable tourism, sustainable environmental management, nature protection, national parks, rural tourism, South European countries 


1. Bochkareva T.V. Ekoturizm: analiz sushchestvuyushchego mezhdunarodnogo opyta [Ecotourism: an Analysis of Existing International Experience] Available at: (accessed 23.09.2017).

2. The Tourism Sector and the Sustainable Development Goals Responsible Tourism, a Global Commitment. Madrid, UNWTO, 2016. 50 p.

3. World Economic Forum. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

4. Fortuno M. Turismofobia, un tiro en el pie en nuestro motor de crecimiento. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

5. Muerza A.F. 7 datos que desconoces de los espacios naturales protegidos de Espana. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

6. Tejera J. El Proyecto Lasos: la necesidad de generar espacios de accion colectiva hacia un isla de Tenerife mas sostenible y autosuficiente. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

7. World Wildlife Fund. Parchi in Italia. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

8. Eco-Turismo. Increasing the Value of Tourism by Respecting the Environment. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

9. Associazione Italiana Turismo Responsabile. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

10. Ammappa l’Italia. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

11. Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Υπουργείο Εξωτερικών. [Hellenic Republic. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (In Greek.)] Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

12. Pelagidis T., Mitsopoulus M. Greece: From Exit to Recovery? Washington, D.C., The Brookings Institution, 2014. 144 p.

13. Guduraš D. Economic Crisis and Tourism: Case of the Greek Tourism Sector. Economic Thought and Practice. Periodical of the University of Dubrovnik, 2014, no. 2, pp. 613-632.

14. Greek Tourism Hit by Strike. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

15. European Environment Agency. Greece. Briefing – Published 18 Feb 2015. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

16. Buhalis D. Tourism in Greece: Strategic Analysis and Challenges. Current Issues in Tourism, 2001, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 440-480.

17. Φωτίου, Σ. Οικοτουρισμός και προστασία της φύσης σε νησιωτικές περιοχές. Μουσείο Γουλανδρή Φυσικής Ιστορίας – Ελληνικό Κέντρο Βιοτόπων-Υγροτόπων, 2002. 98 σελ. [Fotiou S. Ecotourism and nature protection in the island territories. The Goulandris Museum of Natural History – The Greek Biotope-Wetland Centre, 2002. 98 p. (In Greek.)]

18. Δολόγλου Ν. Τουρισμός σε ορεινές περιοχές. Προβλήματαανάγκες. ΜΕ.Κ.Δ.Ε του Ε.Μ.Π, 2008. 22 σελ. [Dologlou N. Tourism in mountain areas. Problems and solutions. Metsovion Interdisciplinary Research Center, 2008. 22 p. (In Greek.)]

19. Φραιδάκη Μ. Marketing ειδικών μορφών τουρισμού: οικοτουρισμός, η περίπτωση του Νομού Ρεθύμνης Κρήτης. Διδακτορική διατριβή. Αθήνα, 2013. 652 σελ. [Fraidaki M. Marketing of special forms of tourism: ecotourism, the case of Prefecture of Rethymno, Crete. Doctoral thesis. Athens, 2013. 652 p. (In Greek.)]

20. Visit Greece. Ecotourism. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

21. Pappas I. Destination Check: Current State of Tourism Sustainability in Greece. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

22. Greece Ranks 2nd in World for 2017 Blue Flag Beaches. Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017).

23. Svoronou E, Holden A. Ecotourism as a Tool for Nature Conservation: the Role of WWF Greece in the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest Reserve in Greece. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2005, vol. 13 (5), pp. 456-467.

24. Μονοπάτια της Ελλάδας. [Paths of Greece (In Greek.)] Available at: (accessed 01.10.2017). 

Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Ponedelko G., Kvashnin Y., Gutnick A., Trofimova O. Ecological Tourism in South European Countries. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2018, vol. 62, No 2, pp. 73-82.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment

Current Issue
2020, vol. 64, No. 2
Topical Themes of the Issue:
• Risks of a Global Recession in the Face of Globalization Crisis
• Performative Trumponomics and Financial Market
• The Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (Experience of Informal Regulation of Maritime Security)
View This Issue (2020, vol. 64, No. 2)
Send article

Dear readers!
Please note that free access to full-text issues of the Journal is being opened at our WEB-site after 6 months of the date of publications. Currently, the releases of 2015–2018 are available for free. The work on deepening the open archive of full-text issues will be continued.

Dear readers!
This is to inform the researchers of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations that electronic version of the 4-nd issue of 2019 of French magazine Politique étrangère is now available. Those who are interested, please personally address to the editorial staff of MEMO Journal (room 18-17) with an electronic media (e-mailing is not possible because of technical reasons).


In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“The Common Spaces”. The XX century was marked by the process of active development of the so-called common spaces, namely the World ocean, outer space and the Internet which, due to various reasons, were previously perceived as peripheral for the mankind and were not used at all or less intensively. Since then, the degree of their development and usage is constantly increasing. Even though the prospects of obtaining material dividends from their use are often extremely remote, the level of competition there is steadily increasing, resulting in growing inter-state conflicts’ potential.

“Silk Road and prospects of Great Eurasia”. It is planned to publish materials concerning the Chinese project of Silk Road and its impact on the socio-economic development of various countries in Eurasia and the integration processes in this mega-region.

“Africa today and tomorrow”The rubric devoted to contemporary issues of Africa which is attracting growing interest of the world's leading actors. We plan to publish the articles analyzing the status of statehood, socio-economic and political development of the countries of Black continent, as well as the integration processes between them.

“Civilization processes of modern development” is a new rubric opened by MEMO Journal in 2020. It will be devoted to the analysis of the influence of civilizational factors and inter-civilizational interactions on the political and socio-economic development of the world at whole, regions and countries.

Dear colleagues, authors and readers!

We kindly request you to turn to editor-in-chief and executive secretary directly concerning reviewing scientific publications in our journal. Only editor-in-chief takes decision on order and publication the reviews!


"World Eonomy and International Relations" announces a contest for the best joint academic publications of domestic and foreign researchers and experts in topical issues of the world economy and international relations. The winners will be selected according to the results of peer reviewing and discussion at the Editorial Board. The articles will be published in priority order.


The print version of “World Economy and International Relations” journal is distributed by advance subscription only, and is not offered for retail sale. To subscribe please address to any post office in Russia by referring to the Federal Postal Service Union Catalogue, section “ARSMI”, the journal index is 70542. The subscription may be made for the whole subscription period or starting from any nearest available month for desired number of issues.

To purchase the full-text electronic version of the journal’s issue/article please address to the WEB portal of Scientific electronic library or URL:

In journal
                     Articles for the year
                     Authors for the year
2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 |

The author’s opinions may not coincide with the position of editorial